Greta Scacchi ist eine italienisch-australische Schauspielerin. Übersetzung Italienisch-Deutsch für scacchi im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Scacchi ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Arcangelo Scacchi (–) italienischer Geologe; Greta Scacchi (* ), italienische. Greta Scacchi (* Februar in Mailand) ist eine italienisch-australische Schauspielerin. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Leben; 2 Anmerkungen; 3 Filmografie. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'scacchi' in LEOs Italienisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.
Übersetzung Italienisch-Deutsch für scacchi im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Scacchi ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Arcangelo Scacchi (–) italienischer Geologe; Greta Scacchi (* ), italienische. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'scacchi' in LEOs Italienisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.
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In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; in informal games, the colors are usually decided randomly, for example by coin toss, or by one player's concealing a white and black pawn in either hand and having the opponent choose.
White moves first, after which players alternate turns, moving one piece per turn except for castling , when two pieces are moved.
A piece is moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, which is captured and removed from play.
With the sole exception of en passant , all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. Moving is compulsory; it is illegal to skip a turn, even when having to move is detrimental.
A player may not make any move that would put or leave the player's own king in check. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; the result is either checkmate a loss for the player with no legal move if the king is in check, or stalemate a draw if the king is not.
Each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece s of either color except the knight, which leaps over any intervening pieces.
Once in every game, each king can make a special move, known as castling. Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook that is on the player's first rank and then placing the rook on the last square that the king just crossed.
Castling is permissible if the following conditions are met: . When a pawn makes a two-step advance from its starting position and there is an opponent's pawn on a square next to the destination square on an adjacent file, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant "in passing" , moving to the square the pawn passed over.
This can be done only on the very next turn; otherwise the right to do so is forfeited. For example, in the animated diagram, the black pawn advances two steps from g7 to g5, and the white pawn on f5 can take it en passant on g6 but only on White's next move.
When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color.
Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called underpromotion. In the animated diagram , the pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted.
There is no restriction on the piece promoted to, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game e.
When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces, it is said to be in check.
A move in response to a check is legal only if it results in a position where the king is no longer in check. This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king ; or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack.
Castling is not a permissible response to a check. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and there is no legal way to remove it from attack.
It is never legal for a player to make a move that puts or leaves the player's own king in check. In casual games it is common to announce "check" when putting the opponent's king in check, but this is not required by the rules of chess, and is not usually done in tournaments.
There are several ways games can end in a draw :. In competition, chess games are played with a time control. If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost provided the opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate.
Time is controlled using a chess clock that has two displays, one for each player's remaining time. Analog chess clocks have been largely replaced by digital clocks, which allow for time controls with increments.
Time controls are also enforced in correspondence chess competition. A typical time control is 50 days for every 10 moves.
Chess is believed to have originated in northwest India , in the Gupta Empire c. Thence it spread eastward and westward along the Silk Road.
The earliest evidence of chess is found in the nearby Sasanian Persia around , where the game came to be known by the name chatrang.
Chatrang was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia —44 , where it was then named shatranj , with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names.
The oldest archaeological chess artifacts, ivory pieces, were excavated in ancient Afrasiab , today's Samarkand , in Uzbekistan , central Asia, and date to about , with some of them possibly older.
The oldest known chess manual was in Arabic and dates to —, written by al-Adli ar-Rumi — , a renowned Arab chess player, titled Kitab ash-shatranj Book of the chess.
This is a lost manuscript, but referenced in later works. The eastern migration of chess, into China and Southeast Asia, has even less documentation than its migration west.
Alternatively, some contend that chess arose from Chinese chess or one of its predecessors,  although this has been contested.
By the year , it had spread throughout both Muslim Iberia and Latin Europe. A famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj, backgammon , and dice is known as the Libro de los juegos.
Around , the rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe, and around , several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today.
These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe. In the 18th century, the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France.
The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess  or international chess ,  particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as xiangqi are prevalent.
As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs , chess books, and chess journals appeared.
There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in In , von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels Handbook of Chess , the first comprehensive manual of chess theory.
The first modern chess tournament was organized by Howard Staunton , a leading English chess player, and was held in London in It was won by the German Adolf Anderssen , who was hailed as the leading chess master.
His brilliant, energetic attacking style was typical for the time. The romantic era was characterized by opening gambits sacrificing pawns or even pieces , daring attacks, and brazen sacrifices.
Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time. The game was played more for art than theory.
A profound belief that chess merit resided in the players' genius rather than inherent in the position on the board pervaded chess practice.
Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with the American Paul Morphy , an extraordinary chess prodigy.
Morphy won against all important competitors except Staunton, who refused to play , including Anderssen, during his short chess career between and Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.
Prague -born Wilhelm Steinitz beginning in described how to avoid weaknesses in one's own position and how to create and exploit such weaknesses in the opponent's position.
Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components. The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan.
After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew. The first Olympiad was held in Paris in , and FIDE was founded initially for the purpose of organizing that event.
Capablanca was undefeated in tournament play for eight years, from to His successor was the Russian-French Alexander Alekhine , a strong attacking player who died as the world champion in Alekhine briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in and regained it two years later.
They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.
After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought. FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruption , ran a tournament of elite players.
The winner of the tournament was Russian Mikhail Botvinnik. Some sources state that in the title of chess Grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch , and Marshall , but this is a disputed claim.
Botvinnik started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Previously Black strove for equality, to neutralize White's first-move advantage.
As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning. FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches.
The world's strongest players were seeded into Interzonal tournaments, where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments.
The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the " Candidates " stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.
The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later.
This system operated on a three-year cycle. Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years.
He won the world championship tournament in and retained the title in tied matches in and In , he lost to Vasily Smyslov , but regained the title in a rematch in In , he lost the title to the year-old Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal , an accomplished tactician and attacking player.
Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in Following the event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian , a player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, — His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia champion — , won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.
Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the s and early s with a string of tournament successes. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between and ; Karpov never won his title back.
From then until , there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in a series of many games, and the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion.
Kasparov lost his Classical title in to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia. Anand defended his title in the revenge match of ,  and Carlsen confirmed his title in against the Russian Sergey Karjakin  and in against the American Fabiano Caruana ,  in both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classical time control , and is the reigning world champion.
Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance , chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the " King's Game ".
Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick.
But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.
Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.
Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.
Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess' , written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.
This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.
During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.
The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.
By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: — the relation of the several Pieces, and their situations [ Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ Chess was occasionally criticized in the 19th century as a waste of time.
Chess is taught to children in schools around the world today. Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children.
Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.
Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".
Rowling's Harry Potter plays. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.
The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. The game of chess, at times, has been discouraged by various religious authorities, including Jewish, Christian and Muslim.
Jewish scholars Maimonides and Kalonymus ben Kalonymus both condemned chess, though the former only condemned it when played for money while the latter condemned it in all circumstances.
Iran now has an active confederation for playing chess and sends players to international events.
Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly algebraic chess notation. The pieces are identified by their initials.
For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file, 5th rank" that is, to the square g5. Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials for pieces, or figurine algebraic notation FAN may be used to avoid language issues.
To resolve ambiguities, an additional letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved e. Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3"; R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2".
The letter P for pawn is not used; so e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4". If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.
Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.
For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.
Particularly in Germany, some publications use ":" rather than "x" to indicate capture, but this is now rare.
Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed. Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling.
An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e. Checkmate can be indicated by " ". Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols.
For example: "! For example, one variation of a simple trap known as the Scholar's mate see animated diagram can be recorded:.
The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.
Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation. In descriptive notation, files are named according to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view.
For example, the square known as "e3" in algebraic notation is "K3" King's 3rd from White's point of view, and "K6" King's 6th from Black's point of view.
When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.
Thus, Scholar's mate is rendered in descriptive notation:. Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88".
Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, e. Captures are not indicated. Castling is described by the king's move only; e.
A game of chess can generally be loosely subdivided into three phases or stages of play: the opening , followed by the middlegame , then last the endgame.
A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.
They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.
The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: . Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.
This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening. There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.
Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.
Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.
Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the Boden's Mate or the Lasker—Bauer combination. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.
An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.
The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.
Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.
Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.
Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.
The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: .
Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board. Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.
For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.
Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.
These two aspects of the gameplay cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.
A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: the opening , typically the first 10 moves, when players move their pieces to useful positions for the coming battle; the middlegame ; and last the endgame , when most of the pieces are gone, kings typically take a more active part in the struggle, and pawn promotion is often decisive.
The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.
Theoreticians describe many elementary tactical methods and typical maneuvers, for example: pins , forks , skewers , batteries , discovered attacks especially discovered checks , zwischenzugs , deflections , decoys , sacrifices , underminings , overloadings , and interferences.
A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is a position where a decisive combination is available and the challenge is to find it.
Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.
During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.
The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.
But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.
Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton : the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.
Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.
Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.
Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee ,  but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess has its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.
Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.
Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as contract bridge , Go , and Scrabble.
The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: . All the titles are open to men and women.
Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and as of , all of the top ten rated women hold the unrestricted GM title.
As of [update] , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with , 98, and 96, respectively.
FIDE also awards titles for arbiters and trainers. International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.
National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.
Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.
Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.
The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in , and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions.
The creator is known as a chess composer. Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.
It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn.
The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:. Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw.
Chess has an extensive literature. In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.
The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.
The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and has been proved to be fewer than 10 47 ,   with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.
Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the knight's tour and the eight queens puzzle. Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers , and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.
The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: 1 the problem is sharply defined both in allowed operations the moves and in the ultimate goal checkmate ; 2 it is neither so simple as to be trivial nor too difficult for satisfactory solution; 3 chess is generally considered to require "thinking" for skillful play; a solution of this problem will force us either to admit the possibility of a mechanized thinking or to further restrict our concept of "thinking"; 4 the discrete structure of chess fits well into the digital nature of modern computers.
CHESS 3. Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.
In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating chess engine Hiarcs 13 running on the mobile phone HTC Touch HD won the Copa Mercosur tournament with nine wins and one draw.
With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.
Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents worldwide. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.
In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.
The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: two player, no-chance, combinatorial, Markov state present state is all a player needs to move; although past state led up to that point, knowledge of the sequence of past moves is not required to make the next move, except to take into account of en passant and castling, which do depend on the past moves , zero sum, symmetric, perfect information, non-cooperative, discrete, extensive form tree decisions, not payoff matrices , and sequential.
Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.
De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about six positions in each case.
Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices. When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.
More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.
The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.
Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.
Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.
A relationship between chess skill and intelligence has long been discussed in the literature and popular culture.
Academic studies of the relationship date back at least to There are more than two thousand published chess variants,  most of them of relatively recent origin,  including:.
Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include David Pritchard 's encyclopedias,  the website The Chess Variant Pages created by Hans Bodlaender with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from George Jellis to the British Chess Variants Society.
In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.
Strategy board game. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: white king , black rook , black queen , white pawn , black knight , white bishop.
Main article: Rules of chess. Initial position, first bottom row: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, and rook; second row: pawns.
Moves of the king. Moves of a rook. Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen. Moves of a knight.
Moves of a pawn. Main article: Castling. Main article: En passant. Main article: Promotion chess. Main article: Check chess.
The black king is in check by the rook. White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops. Black is not in check and has no legal move.
The result is stalemate. Main article: History of chess. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs. Kieseritzky, Main article: Chess in the arts.
A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Main article: Chess notation. Square names in algebraic chess notation. Main article: Chess opening.
Main article: Chess middlegame. Main article: Chess endgame. Example of zugzwang. Main article: Chess tactics.
Botvinnik vs. Yudovich, . After sacrificing a piece to expose Black's king, Botvinnik played Kxh5 Qxf4 Kf5 Kh7 Down 1, this week.
She grew up in Milan and Sussex, England. In , her mother and second husband moved to Australia, where, after she left school, Greta worked as an Italian interpreter on a ranch.
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